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JOURNAL INFORMATION


Seychelles Research Journal is published twice a year, in February and August. The aim of this online, open access journal is to demonstrate the vibrancy of research in and about Seychelles. Boundaries are drawn loosely to include comparable issues elsewhere in the western Indian Ocean and in small island states further afield.

Information on how to submit proposed articles and on the refereeing process is explained elsewhere in the website. New proposals are always encouraged.

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Editor:                                                                     Emeritus Professor Dennis Hardy

Deputy Editor/Web Design:                               Jane Woolfenden

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Marketing Consultant:                                        Guy Morel

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International Advisers:

  • Dr Ashton Berry, Bird International, UK
  • Dr Pascal Nadal, Diocesan Service of Catholic Education, Mauritius
  • Dr Jivanta Schöttli, Institute of South Asian Studies, Singapore
  • Dr Erika Techera, University of Western Australia
  • Dr Kris Valaydon, Founding Editor, Island Studies
  • Professor Jean-Pierre Cabestan, Hong Kong Baptist University

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Sponsors:

Publication would not be  possible without  the generous support of our sponsors:

  • Kannus
  • STC

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This is a publication of the University of Seychelles http://www.unisey.ac.sc

The views and opinions represented in this publication are not necessarily those of the institutions to which the authors are affiliated and, additionally, should not be attributed to the publisher.

©2020 – Seychelles Research Journal, The University of Seychelles

Cover photograph © Jane Woolfenden

ISSN 1659-7435


CONTENTS


♦EDITORIAL

Read the editorial here: Editorial-SRJ-2-(2)


♦ARTICLES

‘Kekfwa ou pa’n ganny sa, kekfwa mon a eksplik li
an Kreol’: The COVID-19 lingo in Seychelles Creole.   ♦ Page 3 ♦

Aneesa Vel

Seychellois Creole, a young emerging language is constantly being enriched by new words and concepts. With recent events happening throughout the world in regards to the novel Corona virus, COVID-19, the need for simplified, clear and accessible information has proven to be an important aspect in the fight against this unfortunate calamity. One of the ways to inform, communicate, and instruct people is through their first language. As a matter of fact, the Department of Health has been communicating, as much as possible, in the three national languages: Seychellois Creole (SC), English, and French but mostly in SC. In one of their press conferences, the CEO of the Health Care Agency, reiterated a point to a journalist by stating: ‘Kekfwa ou pa’n ganny sa, kekfwa mon a eksplik li an Kreol’. Yet sometimes, when it comes to SC, speakers often lack the medical, technical and scientific words to use and have to copy and adopt from English or French. In this paper, we seek to analyse the implications of adopting new entries in  SC brought about by this pandemic, and to find out to what extent the COVID-19 lingo can be translated to SC.

Read the full article here: The_COVID_19_lingo_in_Seychelles_Creole-Aneesa_Vel-SRJ-2-(2)

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The Untrodden Route to Resilience for Small Island
Developing States
   ♦ Page 22 ♦

Peter Rudge

This paper examines the broad practical and theoretical research behind a book due for publication in early 2021 entitled ‘Beyond the Blue Economy: Creative Economies and Sustainable Development in Small Island Developing States’. It highlights some of the challenges of delivering the Blue Economy in the real world and the role that the digital-creative industries can play in supporting that goal, broadening the economic bases of island nations and thereby building resilience to the kind of external shocks we are now experiencing. This paper seeks to make a clear argument for the digital-creative industries being central to a more sustainable economy for small island developing states (SIDS), both in terms of the specifics of developing creative, knowledge-based economies but also understanding the impact that a strong creative sector has on innovation and entrepreneurship across all sections of industry, society and culture. The research has been framed by the notion that working towards the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s) during this ‘decade of action’ requires a far more inclusive, multilateral, cross-sector and open-minded approach than we have seen so far, in terms of policy, strategy, theory and, most crucially, implementation.

Read the full article here: The_untrodden_route_to_resilience_for_small_island_developing_states-Peter_Rudge-SRJ-2-(2)

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Will You Eat Rice Tomorrow?
Food Security and Globalization    Page 37 ♦

Dennis Hardy

Food security is a global issue, on a par with more highly publicized topics like climate change. With a still rapidly increasing world population, combined with less land to grow crops, it cannot be ignored. Of all the goals of the UN’s Sustainable Development agenda, this is the one that looks least likely to be met.  Progress has been made in recent years on the back of a global model of production and distribution. But the Covid-19 pandemic has sent a timely warning that this model is not as responsive as previously thought. Supply lines can very quickly be disrupted, with localized hunger zones resulting. Although more can still be done to increase food output, radical changes in all aspects of the process are needed. Unless there is an urgent and far-reaching response, there can be no guarantee that we will eat rice tomorrow.

Read the full article here: Will_you_eat_rice_tomorrow_Food_security_and_globalization-Dennis_Hardy-SRJ-2-(2)

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Without Fear or Favour: Judicial recusal in the
Southern and East African region    Page 50 ♦

Sarah Mead

The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights recognizes the right of every person ‘to be tried within a reasonable time by an impartial court or tribunal’. The doctrine of judicial recusal is central to upholding this right. Despite this, the doctrine can – and frequently is – subject to abuse by litigants and judges alike. This article explores how the doctrine of judicial recusal is given effect to in the region of Southern and East Africa. It reveals that the legal test for judicial recusals is relatively well settled. The processes and procedures that a judge should adopt in respect of judicial recusals is less so. While some jurisdictions have adopted rules or guidelines concerning the applicable test and process, detailed rules or practice guidelines on judicial recusals are not commonplace. This article therefore addresses questions concerning process with the aim of encouraging the formulation of procedural rules for judicial recusals in the region.

Read the full article here: Without_Fear_or_Favour- Judicial_Recusal_in_the_Southern_and_East_African_Region-Sarah_Mead-SRJ-2-(2)

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Mauritius Falling Fertility Rate    Page 70 ♦

Kris Magalingum Valaydon

Population dynamics influencing development were being analysed through the lens of an increasing fertility rate, or at least a fertility rate higher than replacement level. Mauritius is in a post-demographic phase and  is presenting a different context compared to most other countries of the region. After facing the risk of a population explosion which was likely to lead to a social crisis in the 1960s and 1970s, Mauritius is now facing the threats caused by a fertility rate below replacement level and a rapidly ageing population. Just as the upward population growth was a source of concern in the 1950s and 1960s, so is the reversing trend to-day. Government and the major actors in the economic sector are viewing the fall in the fertility rate as dramatic with possible adverse effects on the country’s future. Population policies which have, up to now, consisted essentially of strategies to curb population growth  are no longer applicable,  especially if the objective of any intended policy is to focus on a fertility increase.

Read the full article here: Mauritius_ Falling_Fertility_ Rate_Challenge-Kris_Magalingum_Valaydon-SRJ-2-(2)

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Reducing Corporal Punishment in Seychelles    Page 80 ♦

Geoff Harris

Seychelles banned corporal punishment in schools in late 2017, and in homes in May 2020. While passing such laws is an admirable step, bringing the law and social norms concerning discipline closer together will require a sustained and carefully planned effort. The aims of the article are to discuss the reasons why corporal punishment is commonly used and therefore why there is resistance to efforts to curtail its use; to examine the scientific evidence concerning its effects on children, both during childhood and when they become adults; and to examine some alternative forms of discipline which can be used at home and in schools. With this foundation, the article then discusses some future steps which will be required in order for Seychelles to become largely free of corporal punishment.

Read the full article here: Reducing_corporal_punishment_in_Seychelles-Geoff_Harris-SRJ-2-(2)

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Community Perceptions of Climate-change Vulnerability
in Seychelles and Some Considerations on Data and
Methodological Gaps    Page 93 ♦

Daniel Etongo, Terence Vel and Amanda Port-Louis

Many ways and techniques to assess vulnerability to climate change have been developed with the aim of informing the development of policies that reduce the risks associated with climate change. This is important especially for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) like  Seychelles, with vulnerability challenges associated to small land-size, coastal erosion, sea-level rise, ocean warming, variability in rainfall, flooding events, etc. In order to assess community perceptions on climate change vulnerability, this study utilizes data from the Ecosystem Based Adaptation (EbA) South Project in Seychelles, and at the same time highlights some data and methodological gaps. An indicator approach was used with the values 0, 1 and 2 ranging from low to high weighting for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity across eight communities in Seychelles. Despite relatively higher levels of awareness on climate change, increase in vulnerability is observed between the years 2014 to 2018. Such yearly averages can provide a much better understanding of vulnerability if they were specific to each of the eight communities during the stated time frame. Those communities which are relatively exposed and sensitive to the impacts of climate change, could have benefited from such an analysis. Gaps in the data emanate from the methodology which was not properly utilized and in some instances was lacking in content (e.g. some major and sub-components relevant to the study were not included). Therefore, future vulnerability studies in Seychelles should address the following topics: (i) a quantitative assessment of vulnerability to climate change across the 28 districts in Seychelles, (ii) exploring climate change vulnerability across sectors in Seychelles, and (iii) a study that addresses the vulnerability of fishery-based livelihoods to the impacts of climate variability and change in Seychelles.

Read the full article here: Community_perceptions_of_climate_change_vulnerability_in_Seychelles_and_some_considerations_on_data_and_methodological_gaps-Daniel_Etongo-Terence_Vel-Amanda_Port-Louis-SRJ-2-(2)

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Climate Protection in Seychelles Through Tourism:
The advantages of a small-sized destination    Page 121 ♦

Benno Rothstein and Timo Wernsdörfer

CO2 abatement costs are often low in developing countries. This is why most carbon-offset projects are being implemented there. Nevertheless, this does not mean that the holiday resort and the project country are in any way related to each other. Linking compensation projects with the destination country could increase the willingness of air travellers to finance voluntary CO2 compensation measures. This paper describes how a possible combination of CO2 compensation projects in Seychelles could affect the voluntary carbon-offset behaviour of Seychelles tourists. On the one hand, is the issue of whether the voluntary willingness of Seychelles travellers to compensate can be increased; on the other hand, we examine whether tourists would be willing to visit a co-financed project in Seychelles. It was found that the willingness of tourists to offset air-travel carbon emissions can be increased. Some factors for this are that all persons have adequate information and that the carbon offset providers display a high degree of transparency. In addition, a broad interest in visiting the projects in Seychelles during the holiday was expressed. An important condition for this is the spatial vicinity to the project. Due to its small size, Seychelles is an ideal location for fulfilling this premise.

Read the full article here: Climate_Protection_in_Seychelles_Through_Tourism-The_advantages_of_a_small-sized_destination-B_Rothstein_and_T_Wernsdorfer-SRJ-2-(2)

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♦RESEARCH NOTES

Mangrove Restoration: Determined young
Seychellois offer vulnerable wetland ecosystems a
second chance of survival    Page 140 ♦

Terence Vel

Mangrove_Restoration-Terence_Vel-SRJ-2-(2)

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Addressing Alleged Human Rights Violations: The truth,
reconciliation and national unity process in Seychelles    Page 145 ♦

Diana Benoit

Addressing_alleged_human_rights_violations-The_truth_reconciliation_and_national_unity_process_in_Seychelles-Diana_Benoit-SRJ-2-(2)


♦BOOK REVIEW  

Hayner, P. (2011). Unspeakable Truths: Transitional
justice and the challenge of truth commissions (2nd edition).
London: Routledge.   ♦ Page 154 ♦

Book_Review-Hayner_P_(2011)-Unspeakable_Truths_transitional_justice_and_the_challenge_of_truth-SRJ-2-(2)